Journal of European Periodical Studies
Style Sheet

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We ask that all contributions be submitted as MS Word documents. They should be double-spaced throughout, with standard margins of 2.5 cm in Times New Roman, 12 point font. Longer quoted passages (three lines or more) should also be double-spaced and should be indented two tabs from the left margin. Please do not justify right margins. The standard length of an academic essay is between 5,000 and 8,000 words, and this includes notes and bibliography.

 Please refer to the MHRA Style Guide, 3rd edition, for full details on preparing your manuscript for publication. Unless otherwise specified below, contributions to JEPS should follow all spelling, punctuation, formatting, and referencing conventions set out in the MHRA guide. It is available to download free of charge here. For the convenience of our authors we append the MHRA Quick Guide to the end of our own style sheet; the quick guide gives an abridged overview of the main points of MHRA style.

 The editors expect authors to have double-checked all quotations and other references to primary and secondary sources for accuracy before submission of their MS.

 Where possible and subject to constraints of space, JEPS aims to reproduce illustrations with essays. When submitting your essay for consideration, you should provide low-resolution copies of figures with captions in a separate Word file. If your essay is accepted for publication, images will need to be submitted as JPEG files scanned to at least 300 dpi. At that point, you will need to provide full details about each illustration, including complete publication data and permissions.

 Please note in particular the following points.

  1. Quotations

Single quotation marks are used to indicate directly cited material. Double quotation marks are used to indicate a quotation within another quotation. Other uses of quotation marks (e.g. ‘scare quotes’) follow this same principle.

 When short quotations are integrated into the main body of a sentence, additional punctuation is placed outside the quotation marks. This applies even when short quotations are used at the end of a sentence. Only when a quotation is a full sentence in its own right and is introduced by a comma or colon should the final full stop appear inside the closing quotation marks.

  1. General References

JEPS uses footnote referencing, NOT the author-date (Harvard) system. References should be indicated by an Arabic superscript numeral in the text, inserted using the reference function in Word. Reference numbers should usually appear at the end of the sentence and always after a punctuation mark. The number of footnotes should be limited as per section 10.2 of the MHRA Style Guide.

 The first footnote reference to a particular source should be given as a full reference (see section 11.2). Subsequent references should be abbreviated to the author’s surname only (see section 11.3). In cases where more than one publication by the same author is referred to in the article, the abbreviated form of reference should also include an abbreviated version of the title.

  1. References to Periodical Publications

References to periodical publications should follow the format below, where volume (12) and issue number (3) are given before the date of publication which appears in parentheses. The date should normally be given accurate to the individual issue. The page range of the item is given without ‘pp.’ followed by the specific page reference in parentheses.

Jean Paul Sartre, ‘The Case for a Responsible Literature’, Partisan Review, 12.3 (Summer 1945), 304–08 (p. 305)

 In cases where the issue number runs consecutively and independently from the volume or year, it may be given without the volume number. In these cases the following format should be used.

 Elsa Triolet, ‘Pour l’amour de l’avenir’, Les Lettres françaises, no. 955 (7 December 1962), 1

 In the case of daily newspapers, the date alone may be used without issue or volume number. In these cases the date should appear in parentheses, but without a preceding comma, after the title of the publication.

 In titles of English-language publications, an initial definite article is not included in the title and not italicized. So authors should refer, for example to the Criterion or the News of the World. In languages other than English an initial definite article is integrated into the publication title, as in the case of La Mode illustrée or Die neue Rundschau. Capitalization in titles follows the conventions of the language of the publication concerned.

  1. Bibliography

Academic essays should also include an alphabetical bibliography, as per section 11.6. Other than the name of the first author/editor, which is inverted, and the specific page reference, which is omitted, the full bibliographic reference follows the conventions set out in section 11.2.

  1. Hyperlinks

Rather than typing out URLs or DOIs in full, authors are encouraged to embed online references as hyperlinks into the names of resources, publications etc.

  1. Other
  • Sentences should be separated by only one space.
  • JEPS uses –ize spellings rather than –ise.
  • In lists of three or more items, the final item should be preceded by a comma.
  • All contractions should be spelt out in full.
  • Foreign words or expressions should be italicized only if they have not entered normal English usage.
  • Short dashes (en dash) should be used to indicate a page range; long dashes (em dash) should be used — if absolutely necessary — for parenthetic phrases.
  • Names ending in –s take a full apostrophe ‘s’ to indicate possession (e.g. ‘Philpotts’s spurious argumentation’).
  • Numbers should be spelt out up to, and including, one hundred.
  • Dates should be given in the following format: 15 November 1973.
  • In ranges of numbers, including years, the final two digits should be given, even where the penultimate digit is repeated (e.g. 13–15, 44–47, 100–22, 104–08, 1933–39).

 MHRA Quick Guide

This Quick Guide summarizes the main features to be noted by authors who are following MHRA style. References such as 11.2.2 are to the numbered subheadings of the full Guide, where fuller discussion can be found.


2.1 In the case of verbs ending in -ize or -ise and their derivatives, the forms in -ize, -ization, etc. (e.g. civilizecivilization) are used in MHRA periodicals. Either system may be used in books published by the MHRA.

2.3 Forms that are attributive and have a single main stress are hyphenated, while predicative and other forms having two main stresses are not hyphenated:

a well-known fact     the facts are well known    a tenth-century manuscript    in the tenth century

 Adverbs ending in -ly and other polysyllabic adverbs are not hyphenated to a following adjective or participle:

a recently published novel
ever increasing quantities

4.4 A contracted form of a word that ends with the same letter as the full form, including plural -s, is not followed by a full stop:

Dr, Jr, Mme, Mr, Mrs, St, vols

5.1 (c) In an enumeration of three or more items, it is the preferred style in MHRA periodicals to insert commas after all but the last item, to give equal weight to each enumerated element, as in: ‘The University has departments of French, German, Spanish, and Portuguese.’ The comma after the penultimate item may be omitted in books published by the MHRA, as long as the sense is clear.


5.7 In quotations, points indicating an ellipsis (i.e. the omission of a portion of the text) should be enclosed within square brackets:

Her enquiries […] were not very favourably answered.


8.2 In expressing inclusive numbers falling within the same hundred, the last two figures should be given, including any zero in the penultimate position:

13–15, 44–47, 100–22, 104–08, 1933–39


9.3 Short quotations (up to forty words or no more than two lines of verse) should be enclosed in single quotation marks and run on with the main text. If a verse quotation includes a line division, this should be marked with a spaced upright stroke ( | ). For a quotation within a quotation, double quotation marks should be used. Unless the quotation forms a complete sentence and is separated from the preceding passage by a punctuation mark, the final full stop should be outside the closing punctuation mark.

9.4 Long quotations (over forty words or more than two lines of verse) should be broken off by an increased space from the preceding and following lines of typescript. They should not be enclosed within quotation marks.


10.1 All notes should end with full stops.

10.3 A note reference number should follow any punctuation except a dash, which it should precede.


11.2.2 BOOKS

Tom McArthur, Worlds of Reference: Lexicography, Learning and Language from the Clay Tablet to the Computer (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), p. 59.

Jean Starobinski, Montaigne in Motion, trans. by Arthur Goldhammer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), p. 174.

Dictionary of the Middle Ages, ed. by Joseph R. Strayer and others, 13 vols (New York: Scribner, 1982–89), vi (1985), 26.

Carlos Fuentes, Aura, ed. by Peter Standish, Durham Modern Language Series: Hispanic Texts, 1 (Durham: University of Durham, 1986), pp. 12–16 (p. 14).

Boswell: The English Experiment 1785–1789, ed. by Irma S. Lustig and Frederick A. Pottle, The Yale Edition of the Private Papers of James Boswell (London: Heinemann; New York: McGraw Hill, 1986), pp. 333–37.


Martin Elsky, ‘Words, Things, and Names: Jonson’s Poetry and Philosophical Grammar’, in Classic and Cavalier: Essays on Jonson and the Sons of Ben, ed. by Claude J. Summers and Ted-Larry Pebworth (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1982), pp. 31–55 (p. 41).


Richard Hillyer, ‘In More than Name Only: Jonson’s “To Sir Horace Vere”’, MLR, 85 (1990), 1-11.

Robert F. Cook, ‘Baudouin de Sebourc: un poème édifiant?’, Olifant, 14 (1989), 115–35 (pp. 118–19).

 Issue numbers are required only where each issue starts at page 1.


11.2.7 The Merchant of Venice, ii. 3. 10; The Faerie Queene, iii. 8. 26; Paradise Lost, ix. 342–50; Aeneid, vi. 215–18; Inferno, iii. 9.


11.2.8 Isaiah 22. 17; ii Corinthians 5.13-15.



Els Jongeneel, ‘Art and Divine Order in the Divina Commedia’, Literature and Theology, 21 (2007), 131–45

Steve Sohmer, ‘The Lunar Calendar of Shakespeare’s King Lear’, Early Modern Literary Studies, 5.2 (1999) <> [accessed 28 January 2000] (para. 3 of 24)

Kent Bach, ‘Performatives’, in Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy <> [accessed 3 October 2001]


11.3 In all references to a book or article after the first, the shortest intelligible form should be used. This will normally be the author’s name, or a short-title reference if appropriate, followed by the volume (if applicable) and page reference:

McArthur, p. 62; Elsky, pp. 42–46 (p. 43); Dictionary of the Middle Ages, vi (1985), 26.

 It may be necessary, for example when more than one work by an author has been cited, to repeat a title, in a shortened form:

McArthur, Worlds of Reference, p. 9.


11.6 In an alphabetical bibliography, the surname of the author or editor whose surname governs the alphabetical position will precede the forename(s) or initial(s). Do not reverse the normal order for collaborating authors or editors other than the first quoted.

Chadwick, H. Munro, and N. Kershaw Chadwick, The Growth of Literature, 3 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1932–40; repr. 1986)

Cook, Robert F., ‘Baudouin de Sebourc: un poème édifiant?’, Olifant, 14 (1989), 115–35

Fuentes, Carlos, Aura, ed. by Peter Standish, Durham Modern Language Series: Hispanic Texts, 1 (Durham: University of Durham, 1986)

Johnson, Thomas H., ed., Emily Dickinson: Selected Letters, 2nd edn (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985)

Strayer, Joseph R., and others, eds, Dictionary of the Middle Ages, 13 vols (New York: Scribner, 1982–89), vi (1985)