Participation into the forestry decision making is in Flanders not to be considered as a real new fact. A number of important forestry topics can be mentioned; whereby participation played a role: (1) forest legislation and forest policy; (2) management plans; (3) National Forest Plan; (4) criteria for sustainable forestry; (5) the Spatial Structure Plan Flanders; (6) establishment of urban forests. The Forest administration, the Flemish Supreme Forestry Council, forest owners, forest associations and scientific institutes are well known internal actors, whereas the agricultural sector and the nature conservation sector are the most salient external actors. However, a distinction must be made between participation and external pressure. Real participation supposes that it is institutionalized and that it is considered as a normal fact. Today, the pressure behind the screen is very great and the real decision making obviously occurs there. At least the impression exists that external actors such as the economic sector, the nature sector and the agricultural sector, which are often not directly involved in the forest decision making, pIesently ore determine many forest policy topics than the forestry sector itself. Besides, participation is not a priori a basis of success.