A short description is given of the life and work of scientists active in veterinary research, who contributed substantially to the knowledge of human disease and health. Microbiology and immunology were their main fields of interest. Important microbiologists include Edmond Nocard, Karl F. Meyer, Daniel Salmon, Victor Babès and Arnold Theiler. Still others were mainly active as immunologists. Gaston Ramon’s works on bacterial toxins resulted in effective vaccines against tetanos as well as diphteritis, until then an important cause of child mortality. Early findings of Auguste Chauveau established a basis for understanding immunity to microbial diseases. Nobel prize-winning Peter C. Doherty helped to elucidate the complex mechanisms of cellular immunity.