In this case report, botryomycosis of the uterus is described as the cause of fertility problems in cattle after caesarian section. Several cows of three Belgian Blue cattle herds failed to become pregnant after repeated artificial or natural insemination. On the uterus of some of the these cows, nodes of 1 cm in diameter were found on rectal examination. Anatomopathological and bacteriological examination of two affected uteri together with on-farm investigations indicated botryomycosis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa after caesarian section as the most probable cause of the infertility. Prevention was primarily based on improving the hygienic procedures at surgery.