The ADKAR® change management model for farmer profiling with regard to antimicrobial stewardship in livestock production

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M. A. M. Houben

N. Caekebeke

A. van den Hoogen

M. Ringenier

T. J. Tobias

F. J. Jonquiere

N. Sleeckx

F. C. Velkers

J. A. Stegeman

J. Dewulf

M. Postma

Published Dec 30, 2020

Abstract

Antimicrobial stewardship in veterinary practice and animal production is important from a One Health perspective. The ADKAR® change management model is a well-known strategy to implement behavioral change in people and small businesses. The objective of this study was to adapt the existing ADKAR® change management model to enable herd veterinarians to profile farmers with regard to antimicrobial stewardship. Therefore, an antimicrobial stewardship related scoring scale was defined. Subsequently, ADKAR® profiles of 26 poultry and 28 pig farmers from Belgium and the Netherlands were determined. For 57% of the farmers, perception and/or motivation were expected to limit successful change. For 70% of the farmers, knowledge and for 52% of the farmers, a lack of ability were the limiting factor. The ADKAR® model proved useful for identifying the key elements that prevent successful behavioral change in farmers to reduce the use of antibiotics in farm animals.


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